Electrotransport of Impurities in Rare-Earth Metals, Using A Pulsed Current.

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  • English
s.n , S.l
SeriesReport of investigations (United States. Bureau of Mines) -- 7480
ContributionsMarchant, J., Shedd, E., Henrie, T.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL21740468M

Additional Physical Format: Online version: Electrotransport of impurities in rare-earth metals, using a pulsed current. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept.

of Interior. Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): (external link) http. Solid-state electrotransport of impurities in cerium, lanthanum, and praseodymium, using a pulsed current, was investigated.

The results were compared with those of using a steady current. Impurities that showed appreciable movement with the pulsed current, but not with the steady current, were as follows: molybdenum and oxygen in cerium.

The purification of five rare earth metals has been investigated using the electrotransport technique with varying degrees of success. The results of these studies are summarized in the following sections.

Details Electrotransport of Impurities in Rare-Earth Metals, Using A Pulsed Current. PDF

Yttrium The earliest application of electrotransport to the purification of a rare earth metal was by Williams and Huffine [19] with by:   The magnetic effects in these alloys are small compared to what is reported in the literature on alloys with trivalent solvents.

We have checked in a few cases that the magnetic moment agrees with the free‐ion values. The explanation of the apparently small value of J probably must be found in a more careful analysis of the interference terms that may be different for different partial by: 6.

Conclusions The principles of electrotransport purification have been described and applied to three rare-earth metals: yttrium, lutetium, and gadolinium. The importance of a non-contaminating environment achieved by the use of ultra-high vacuum equipment and the elimination of the transport of impurities from the electrode adapters and ends of.

Abstract. The rare earth elements have a history of intriguing scientists with their rich variety of physical properties. Early attempts to investigate these properties were hampered, however, by a lack of suitably pure sampies, for it so on came to be realized that the intrinsic properties of these notoriously reactive metals could only be measured if their typical impurity levels were.

The electrotransport mobilities of interstitial impurities in rare earth metals depend on the crystal structure of the metal. Mobility is higher in the bcc phase.

Thus when no other complication crops up, electrotransport purification is best carried out in the bcc phase.

Description Electrotransport of Impurities in Rare-Earth Metals, Using A Pulsed Current. EPUB

J. Less-Common Metals,2: [9] Marchant J D, Shedd E S, Henrie T A, Wong M M. Elec- trotransport of Impurities in Rare-Earth Metals, Using a Pulsed Current, MIAO Ruiying et al., Impurities especially titanium in the rare earth metal gadolinium—before and … [10] Jordan R G, Jones D W.

Rare Earth Elements - End Use and Recyclability (Report), U.S. Geological Survey report on established and newer markets for rare earth elements.

Describes in detail the quantities of specific rare earth elements used in different industries, and discusses prospects for future recycling. Marchant JD, Shedd ES, Henrie TA, Wong MM. Electrotransport of Impurities in Rare-Earth Metals, Using a Pulsed Current. Reno: Bureau of.

In view of the previous studies on the migrations of impurity aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) in purification of rare earth metal by solid-state electrotransport (SSE), there are still some questions about that which direction they migrate to and whether there are significant migrations or not.

The metal lanthanum (La) was used as research object, and the effects of migration temperature and. Two basic methods are used for the preparation of the rare-earth metals, both using the rare-earth oxide as the starting material1'2'6'7.

The metallothermic preparation (applicable to all but Eu, Sm, Tm and Yb) involves a conversion of the rare-earth oxide to the fluoride using ammonium bifluoride or hydrogen fluoride, followed by a reduction.

The supply issue of rare earth elements (REE) has become an increasingly important issue both economically and politically. Their industrial importanc e continues to increase while most production is located China, which makes the supply potentially vulnerable.

As REE are vital for. The Rare-Earth Elements— Vital to Modern Technologies and Lifestyles. Until recently, the rare-earth elements (REEs) were familiar to a relatively small number of people, such as chemists, geologists, specialized materials. scientists, and engineers.

In the 21st century, the REEs have gained visibility. In addition, specimens prepared from the rare-earth metals refined by these techniques have been shown to be suitable for use in exper- iments in which high quality is a pre-requisite [3, 5, 8 ].

Because of certain similarities between terbium and yttrium, gadolinium and lutetium, we have examined the feasibility of SSE processing as a. Book Description.

New Edition Now Covers Recycling, Environmental Issues, and Analytical Determination. Employing four decades of experience in the rare metal and rare earths industry, the authors of Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition present the entire subject of rare earth elements with depth and accuracy.

This second edition updates the most important. The commercial production of rare earth metals by fused salt electrolytic methods is described. These methods are used to make mischmetal, cerium, lanthanum, and didymium (Nd + Pr). The feed materials consist essentially of anhydrous chlorides of the metal to be produced, augmented by additions of nonrare earth salts to yield an electrolyte with satisfactory properties for reduction.

In addition, not a few scholars find that impurities Fe, Co, Ni and Ag were fast diffusion elements in purification of partial rare earth metal by SSE, such as impurities Fe, Co and Ag in metal Ce.

Rare earths: industrial technology; Introduction; As this group has 17 kinds of elements, the applications of rare earth elements are diversified: compounds from chloride 46% purity and % of single rare earth oxides.

The products are various. Details of their separation methods and smelting process are. The relatively low melting point of some of the rare earth metals and many of their alloys is an advantage here. With great ingenuity, electrolytic cells have been designed and methods developed for the preparation of high melting rare earth metals also in consolidated forms, using.

Download Electrotransport of Impurities in Rare-Earth Metals, Using A Pulsed Current. EPUB

New Edition Now Covers Recycling, Environmental Issues, and Analytical Determination Employing four decades of experience in the rare metal and rare earths industry, the authors of Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition present the entire subject of rare earth elements with depth and accuracy.

Rare earth elements, on the other hand, are typically extracted and refined through dozens of chemical processes to separate the different rare earth elements and remove impurities.

The principal deleterious impurity in REE-bearing minerals is thorium, which imparts an. The electronic and optical properties of the rare earth metal atom-doped anatase TiO2 have been investigated systematically via density functional theory calculations.

The results show that TiO2 doped by Ce or Pr is the optimal choice because of its small band gap and strong optical absorption.

Rare earth metal atom doping induces several impurity states that tune the location of valence and. Rare earth–exchanged FCC catalysts continue to be a major market for rare earths with the introduction of reformulated gasolines.

Newer markets are growing for individual high-purity rare earths, particularly for neodymium for use in high-performance permanent magnets. The total rare-earth impurities content was μg g-1, the other metal impurities content was μg g-1, and the C impurity content was 20 μg g-1, S impurity content was 20 μg.

This is a collection of papers presented in the symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Paper topics include the extraction and processing of elements like antimony, arsenic, gold, indium, palladium, platinum, rare earth metals including yttrium and neodymium, titanium.

SUNDANCE – Mining and processing rare earth elements is a particularly complicated endeavor. Unlike other minerals such as gold and silver, rare earth elements.

Rare earth elements occur in many minerals but typically in concentrations too low to be refined in an economical manner; the concentration of REEs in the Earth's crust is estimated to be between to parts per million, which is higher than the concentration of other metals mined for industrial use.

Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Material explores traditional semiconductor devices that are based on control of the electron’s electric charge.

This book looks at the semiconductor materials used for spintronics applications, in particular focusing on wide band-gap semiconductors doped with transition metals and rare earths.

Mischmetal is a well-known rare earth alloy produced by fused electrolysis of four light lanthanide elements, which constitute more than 90% of the rare earth Rare Earth Materials book.

Properties and Applications. Rare Earth Materials. Industrial Applications of Pure Rare Earth Metals .This study designed a counter current extraction process for comparing the separation efficiencies that are obtained using Cyanex and PC88A for the elements in a Pr and Nd mixed solution.Rare Earth and Critical Materials-Novel extraction, processing, and recycling technologies Taylor - Recycle of Rare Earth Magnets † Remelting in a controlled atmosphere furnace with liquid/liquid extraction using magnesium or zinc metal.

† By using magnesium, the neodymium will be dissolved forming a Mg-Nd alloy. † In the case of molten zinc.